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Anal Cancer

Summary

The anus is where stool leaves your body when you go to the bathroom. It is made up of your outer layers of skin and the end of your large intestine. Anal cancer is a disease in which cancer cells form in the tissues of the anus.

Anal cancer is rare. It is more common in smokers and people over 50. You are also at higher risk if you have HPV, have anal sex, or have many sexual partners.

Symptoms include bleeding, pain, or lumps in the anal area. Anal itching and discharge can also be signs of anal cancer.

Doctors use tests that examine the anus to diagnose anal cancer. They include a physical exam, endoscopy, ultrasound, and biopsy.

Treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery.

NIH: National Cancer Institute

Start Here

  • (American Society of Clinical Oncology)
  • (American Cancer Society)
  • (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
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Diagnosis and Tests

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Prevention and Risk Factors

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  • (American Cancer Society)

Treatments and Therapies

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Living With

  • (American Cancer Society)

Related Issues

  • (American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons)
  • (American Cancer Society)

Statistics and Research

  • From the National Institutes of Health (National Cancer Institute)
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Clinical Trials

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Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)

Reference Desk

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  • (American Society of Clinical Oncology)
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Patient Handouts

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